Climate Variability, Predictability, and Change in the Midwestern United States
Focuses on the Midwestern United States - a region that plays a critical role in national agricultural productivity, and experiences a high frequency of extreme events. Employing observational data and model simulations, this book provides detailed assessments of climate change and variability.
There is now unequivocal evidence for an anthropogenic forcing of climate change. Today our climate system is evolving principally, though not exclusively, as a result of human activities. Changes in the climate system on the global scale will inevitably have consequences that are regionally specific and provide opportunities for research into the impact of these changes. "Understanding Climate Change" focuses on the Midwestern United States - a region that contains approximately one-fifth of the population of the US, plays a critical role in national agricultural productivity, and experiences a high frequency of extreme events. Employing observational data and model simulations, the research presented here provides detailed assessments of climate change, variability, and predictability over the past 100 years with predictions for the coming century.
1 Climate variability, predictability and change: An introduction; 2 Overview: Thermal regimes; 3 Global climate change impact on the Midwestern U.S. - a summer cooling trend; 4 Historical and projected changes in the length of the frost-free season; 5 Long-term Midwestern summer equivalent temperature variability; 6 Estimating changes in temperature variability in a future climate; 7 Wisconsin's changing climate: Temperature; 8 Overview: Hydrologic regimes; 9 Did precipitation regimes change during the twentieth century?; 10 Climate change and streamflow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin; 11 The influence of land cover type on surface hydrology in Michigan; 12 Wisconsin's changing climate: Hydrologic cycle; 13 Spatial and temporal dimensions of extreme rainfall in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area; 14 Overview: North American atmospheric circulation effects on Midwestern climate; 15 Historical trends in near-surface wind speeds; 16 Variability of wind speed regimes in Minnesota; 17 Teleconnections and circulation patterns in the Midwestern United States; 18 Regional synoptic classification: A Midwestern example; 19 Overview: Climate hazards; 20 Severe storms in the Midwest; 21 Climate sensitivity of Great Lakes generated weather systems; 22 Severe weather hazards in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area; 23 Where is climate science in the Midwest going?; Further reading