Forced Removal in the Modern World
The forced removal of human beings from their homes for political, economic, 'racial', religious, or cultural reasons is a tragic hallmark of the modern age. The development of a global economy, modern race-thinking, world wars, popular and national sovereignty, and new technological means have given this phenomenon a new character.
One of the terrible and tragic themes of modern history is the forced removal of millions of human beings. Scarcely a corner of the world has been spared the violence of the forced removal of people from their homes for political, economic, 'racial', religious, or cultural reasons. The causes, course, and consequences of the removal of peoples from their homes form a central theme in the history of the modern world. While removing people from their homes by force did not begin suddenly in the nineteenth century, the combination of the development of a global (capitalist) economy, of modern race-thinking, of world wars, of the triumph of popular and national sovereignty, and of new technological means of physically uprooting and transporting peoples has given this phenomenon a quantitatively and qualitatively new character. Removal has been a global phenomenon, and therefore this volume treats it within the frame of world history and international comparison. Examples discussed range from the United States in the 1830s to the expulsion of pied noir settlers from Algeria in the 1960s.A number of factors reshaped the older practices of forced migration and helped to make the removals discussed in this volume distinctly 'modern'.; These include the use of modern apparatuses of administration, communication, and coercion, as well as warfare based on modern technology and organization. When it became possible to remove human beings on a massive scale, people may have started to consider doing just that--and especially so in crises connected to war, colonization, or decolonization, as the studies assembled in this volume demonstrate.
PART I: INTRODUCTORY REMARKS; 1. Introduction; 2. Explaining Forced Migration; PART II: FORCED REMOVAL AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES; 3. On the Trail of Tears: Daniel Butrick's Record of the Removal of the Cherokees; 4. Breaking the Bonds of People and Land; 5. The Federal Indian Relocation Programme of the 1950s and the Urbanization of Indian Identity; 6. Calculating Lives: The Number and Narrative of Removals in Queensland, 1859-1972; 7. The Slave Trade as Enforced Migration in the Central Sudan of West Africa; PART III: FORCED REMOVAL AND WAR; 8. The Great Unweaving: The Removal of Peoples in Europe, 1875-1949; 9. Explaining Genocide: The Fate of the Armenians in the Late Ottoman Empire; 10. Trial Run: The Deportation of the Terek Cossacks 1920; 11. National and International Planning of the 'Transfer' of Germans from Czechoslovakia and Poland; 12. 'Nobody's People': The Dalits of Punjab in the Forced Removal of 1947; 13. The 1947 Partition of India and Migration: A Comparative Study of Punjab and Bengal; 14. Explaining Transfer: Zionist Thinking and the Creation of the Palestinian Refugee Problem; PART IV: FORCED REMOVAL IN POST-COLONIAL TIMES; 15. Sustainable Violence: Mass Resettlement, Strategic Villages, and Militias in Anti-Guerrilla Warfare; 16. Coerced or Free? Narrating the Reverse Migrations of Decolonization; PART V: CONCLUDING THOUGHTS; 17. Removing Peoples in the 'Modern' World: A Comparative Perspective