Early retirement has become a major problem in modern societies. Focusing on the USA, Europe, and Japan, this book provides a comprehensive, empirical analysis of why different early exit schemes have emerged across advanced market economies, why this trend has been so difficult to counter, and the resulting policy reforms.
PART 1: EXPLORING INTERESTS AND INSTITUTIONS; 1. Introduction: The Paradox of Early Exit from Work; 2. Actor Constellations and Interest Coalitions: Labor, Emoployers, and the State; 3. Protection, Production, anfd Partnership Institutions: From Institutional Affinities to Complementarities; PART 2: COMPARING EARLY EXIT REGIMES; 4. Ever Earlier Retirement: Comparing Employment Trajectories; 5. The Protection-Pull Factors: Multiple Pathways to Early Exit; 6. The Production-Push Factors: The Political Economy of Labor Shedding; PART 3: REFORM OBSTACLES AND OPPORTUNITIES; 7. Exit from Early Retirement: Paradigm Shifts, Policy Reversals, and Reform Obstacles; 8. Conclusion: From Path Dependence to Path Departure?; Bibliography; Appendix Note