Resources, Alternatives and the Environment
Offers a global vision of available and potential energy sources, discusses their particular advantages and drawbacks, and helps prepare current and future generations to use energy differently and exploit new energy sources. Presenting information and dispassionate analysis, this book includes statistical data for energy production.
"Energy: Resources, Alternatives and the Environment" provides a global vision of available and potential energy sources, discusses their particular advantages and drawbacks, and helps prepare current and future generations to use energy differently and exploit new energy sources. Presenting easy-to-grasp, up-to-date information and dispassionate analysis, the book includes statistical data for energy production and consumption and simple formulas that allow readers to make quantitative estimates about energy systems. This quick overview is suitable for a very broad audience, including students, teachers, decision-makers, politicians, and consumers.
Chapter 1: We need energy. PART 1: GENERALITIES. 1. Primary and secondary energy. 2. Energy units. 3. Power. 4. Energy and first law of thermodynamics. 5. Entropy and second law of thermodynamics. 6. Exergy. 7.Going back to the past. 8. Man and energy. PART 2: ALWAYS MORE!. 1. Why do we need more energy? 2. The energy sources we use. 3. Security of supply. 4. Environmental concerns. Chapter 2: Oil and Natural Gas. 1. Genesis of oil and natural gas. 2. Recovering oil and gas. 3. Peak oil. 4. Reserves. Crude oil reserves. Natural gas reserves. 5. Properties of hydrocarbons. 6. Oil fields. 7. Prices. 8. Consumption. 9. Electricity generation. 10. Impact on the environment. 11. Unconventional oil and gas resources. Oil shale. Tar sands. Coal bed methane. Methane hydrates. 12. Conclusion. Chapter 3: Coal. 1. Genesis of coal. 2. Rank of coals. 3. Classification of coals. 4. Peat. 5. Use of coal. 6. Coal Reserves. 7. Production and consumption. 8. Electricity production. 9. Coal combustion for power generation. Advanced pulverized coal combustion. Fluidized bed combustion at atmospheric pressure. Pressurized fluidized bed combustion. 10. Combined heat and power generation. 11. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. 12. Coal to liquid technologies. 13. Direct coal liquefaction. 14. Indirect coal liquefaction. 15. Direct or indirect CTL technology? 16. Carbon capture and sequestration. Capture. Transport. Sequestration. Cost. 17. Coal pit accidents. 18. Environmental impacts. 19. Conclusion. Chapter 4: Fossil Fuels and the Greenhouse Effect. 1. The Greenhouse effect. 2. The Greenhouse Gases. 3. Weather and climate. 4. Natural change of the climate. 5. Anthropogenic emissions. 6. Water and aerosols. 7. Global warming potentials. 8. An increase of the average temperature. 9. Model predictions. 10. Energy and greenhouse gas emissions. 11. Consequences. 12. Other impacts on the ocean. 13. Factor 4. 14. The Kyoto Protocol. 15. Conclusion. Chapter 5: Energy from water. Part 1: Hydropower. 1. Hydropower: an important source of electricity. 2. Dams, diversions. 3. Head and flow. 4. Turbines. 5. Small-scale hydropower. 6. Environmental concerns. 7. Costs. Part 2: Energy from the ocean. 1. Offshore wind energy. 2. Wave energy. 3. Tidal energy. 4. Marine Current energy. 5. Ocean thermal energy conversion. 6. Osmotic energy. Chapter 6: Biomass. 1. Producing biomass. 2. An old energy resource. 3. Electricity production. 4. Technologies. Direct-combustion technologies. Co-firing technologies. Biomass gasification. Anaerobic digestion. Pyrolysis. 5. Heat production. 6. Biomass for cooking. 7. Environmental impact. 8. Market Share. 9. Biofuels. Biofuels, an old story. 10. First generation biofuels. Biofuels for gasoline engines. Biofuels for diesel engines. Second generation biofuels. Third generation biofuels. 11. From Well to wheels. 12. Conclusion. Chapter 7: Solar energy. 1. Solar energy: a huge potential. 2. Thermal solar energy. Producing hot water for domestic purposes. Heating, cooling and ventilation using solar energy. The solar cooker. 3. Concentrated solar power plants. Parabolic troughs. Power towers. Parabolic dish collector. 4. Solar chimneys or towers. 5. Photovoltaic systems. A market dominated by silicon. Other photovoltaic technologies. Applications. 6. Electricity storage. 7. Economy and environment. 8. Conclusion. Chapter 8: Geothermal energy. 1. Available in many places. 2. Different uses. 3. Technologies. 4. Geothermal energy in the world. 5. Conclusion. Chapter 9: Wind energy. 1. Already a long history. 2. From theory to practice. 3. Development of wind power. 4. Off-shore wind turbines. 5. Conclusions. Chapter 10: Nuclear energy. PART 1: BASICS OF NUCLEAR ENERGY. 1. Atoms and nuclei. 2. Radioactivity. 3. Energy and mass. 4. Fission. 5. Fissile and fertile. 6. Chain reaction. 7. Critical Mass. 8. Nuclear Reactors. 9. Natural Nuclear Reactors- Oklo. 10. Conclusion. PART 2: USE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY. 1. Different technologies. 2. The selection process. 3. Why nuclear energy? 4. Uranium resources. 5. Fuel cycles. Front end fuel cycle. Back end fuel cycle. 6. Safety. 7. Nuclear waste. 8. Conclusion. PART 3: THERMONUCLEAR FUSION. 1. Nuclei, concentrated sources of energy. 2. The Sun. 3. Fusion of light nuclei. 4. Difficulties. 5. A bit of history. 6. Thermonuclear fusion in Tokamaks. 7. ITER: a new step towards mastering fusion. 8. About Fuel Reserves. 9. Longer term possibilities. 10. Safety and waste issues. 11. Conclusion. Appendix. Chapter 11: Electricity. 1. A rapid development. 2. Energy sources for electricity production. 3. No unique solution. 4. From mechanical energy to the consumer. 5. Impact on the environment. 6. Cost. 7. Conclusion. Chapter 12: Energy storage. PART 1: ELECTRICITY STORAGE. 1. Characteristics of electricity storage. 2. Large quantity storage technologies. Pumped hydroelectric storage. Compressed air energy storage. Thermal energy storage of electricity. 3. Electrochemical batteries. Primary batteries. Metal-air batteries. Rechargeable batteries. Lead batteries. NiCd batteries. The NIMH battery. Li-ion batteries. Flow batteries. Sodium-sulphur battery. Conclusion. 4. Supercapacitors. 5. Flywheels. PART 2: THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE. 1. Basic heat storage. 2. Sensible heat storage. 3. Phase change materials. 4. Thermochemical and thermophysical energy storage. 5. Applications of thermal energy storage. 6. Underground energy storage. 7. Conclusion. Chapter 13: Transportation. 1. A short history of transportation. 2. Road transportation. 3. Energy and transportation. 4. Road Transportation. 5. Ship transportation. 6. Air transport. 7. Car dynamics. 8. Fuels for road transportation. 9. CO2 Emissions. 10. Hybrid vehicles. 11. Electric vehicles. 12. Conclusion. Chapter 14: Housing. 1. Importance of housing. 2. Towards more efficient housing. 3. Different regions, different solutions. 4. Bioclimatic architecture. 5. Insulation. 6. Glazing. 7. Lighting. 8. Ventilation. 9. Water. 10. Energy use in a household. 11. Heat pumps. 12. Impact on the environment. 13. Conclusion. Chapter 15: Smart energy consumption. 1. Housing. 2. Improving the way we consume energy. 3. Cogeneration. 4. Standby consumption. 5. Lighting. 6. Transportation. Technology. Individuals. 7. Conclusion. Chapter 16: Hydrogen. PART 1: FROM PRODUCTION TO DISTRIBUTION. Properties. 2. Production. Vaporeforming. Partial oxidation. Autothermal reforming. Coal gasification. Producing hydrogen in situ. Electrolysis of water. Thermochemical cycles. From biomass. Using enzymes. Photolysis. Storage. Storage of compressed hydrogen gas. Storage of liquid hydrogen. Storage in metal hydrides. Carbon nanotubes. Other possibilities. Hydrogen transport and distribution. Transports. Distribution. Conclusion. PART 2: HYDROGEN: ENERGETIC APPLICATIONS. 1. Fundamentals of fuel cells. 2. Different fuel cells. Alkaline fuel cell (AFC). Proton electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Open issues. 3. Transportation. Hydrogen and fuel cells. Ship and submarines. SOFC and transportation. Direct use of hydrogen. Road transport. Planes. Ships. Combined heat and power. 6. Hydrogen and portable devices. 7. Hydrogen safety. 8. Conclusion. Conclusion. Exercises. Bibliography.