The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present
From Gandhi to Martin Luther King, Tiananmen Square to the Orange Revolution, non-violent action against the forces of oppression has played a key role in world history. This book tells the compelling story of each of the major campaigns of civil resistance that have shaped our world over the last century.
Civil resistance-non-violent action against such challenges as dictatorial rule, racial discrimination and foreign military occupation-is a significant but inadequately understood feature of world politics. Especially through the peaceful revolutions of 1989, it has helped to shape the world we live in. Civil Resistance and Power Politics covers most of the leading cases, including the actions master-minded by Gandhi, the US civil rights struggle in the 1960s, the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979, the 'people power' revolt in the Philippines in the 1980s, the campaigns against apartheid in South Africa, the various movements contributing to the collapse of the Soviet Bloc in 1989-91, and, in this century, the 'colour revolutions' in Georgia and Ukraine. The chapters, written by leading experts, are richly descriptive and analytically rigorous. This book addresses the complex interrelationship between civil resistance and other dimensions of power. It explores the question of whether civil resistance should be seen as potentially replacing violence completely, or as a phenomenon that operates in conjunction with, and modification of, power politics.; It looks at cases where campaigns were repressed, including China in 1989 and Burma in 2007. It notes that in several instances, including Northern Ireland, Kosovo and, Georgia, civil resistance movements were followed by the outbreak of armed conflict. It also includes a chapter with new material from Russian archives showing how the Soviet leadership responded to civil resistance, and a comprehensive bibliographical essay. Illustrated throughout with a remarkable selection of photographs, this uniquely wide-ranging and path-breaking study is written in an accessible style and is intended for the general reader as well as for students of Modern History, Politics, Sociology, and International Relations.
Preface; Acknowledgements; Contents; List of Illustrations; List of Contributors; List of Initial Questions; 1. Civil Resistance and Power Politics; 2. People Power and Protest: The Literature on Civil Resistance in Historical Context; 3. Gandhi and Civil Resistance in India, 1917-47: Key Issues; 4. The US Civil Rights Movement: Power from Below and Above, 1945-70; 5. The Interplay of Non-violent and Violent Action in Northern Ireland, 1967-72; 6. The Dialectics of Empire: Soviet Leaders and the Challenge of Civil Resistance in East-Central Europe, 1968-91; 7. Civil Resistance in Czechoslovakia: From Soviet Invasion to 'Velvet Revolution', 1968-89; 8. Towards 'Self-Limiting Revolution': Poland, 1970-89; 9. Portugal: 'The Revolution of the Carnations', 1974-75; 10. Mass Protests in the Iranian Revolution, 1977-79; 11. 'People Power' in the Philippines, 1983-86; 12. Political Mass Mobilization against Authoritarian Rule: Pinochet's Chile, 1983-88; 13. The Interplay of Non-violent and Violent Action in the Movement against Apartheid in South Africa, 1983-94; 14. The Intersection of Ethnic Nationalism and People Power Tactics in the Baltic States, 1987-91; 15. The 1989 Demonstrations in Tiananmen Square and Beyond: Echoes of Gandhi; 16. Civil Resistance and Civil Society: Lessons from the Collapse of the German Democratic Republic in 1989; 17. The Limits of Prudence: Civil Resistance in Kosovo, 1990-98; 18. Civil Society versus Slobodan Milosevic: Serbia, 1991-2000; 19. Georgia's 'Rose Revolution' of 2003: A Forceful Peace; 20. Ukraine's 'Orange Revolution' of 2004: The Paradoxes of Negotiation; 21. The Moment of the Monks: Burma, 2007; 22. A Century of Civil Resistance: Some Lessons and Questions