A Primer for the Biomedical Sciences
There have been significant changes in the way statistics is incorporated into biostatistical, medical, and public health research. This title presents relevant coverage of research methodology using explanations of basic statistics and how they are used to address practical problems that arise in the medical and public health settings.
This is the new edition of a "Classic Guide to Statistical Applications in the Biomedical Sciences". In the last decade, there have been significant changes in the way statistics is incorporated into biostatistical, medical, and public health research. Addressing the need for a modernized treatment of these statistical applications, "Basic Statistics, Fourth Edition" presents relevant, up-to-date coverage of research methodology using careful explanations of basic statistics and how they are used to address practical problems that arise in the medical and public health settings. Through concise and easy-to-follow presentations, readers will learn to interpret and examine data by applying common statistical tools, such as sampling, random assignment, and survival analysis. Continuing the tradition of its predecessor, this new edition outlines a thorough discussion of different kinds of studies and guides readers through the important, related decision-making processes such as determining what information is needed and planning the collections process.; The book equips readers with the knowledge to carry out these practices by explaining the various types of studies that are commonly conducted in the fields of medical and public health, and how the level of evidence varies depending on the area of research. Data screening and data entry into statistical programs is explained and accompanied by illustrations of statistical analyses and graphs. The following are the additional features of the Fourth Edition: a new chapter on data collection that outlines the initial steps in planning biomedical and public health studies; a new chapter on nonparametric statistics that includes a discussion and application of the Sign test, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, and the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test and its relationship to the Mann-Whitney U test; an updated introduction to survival analysis that includes the Kaplan Meier method for graphing the survival function and a brief introduction to tests for comparing survival functions; incorporation of modern statistical software, such as SAS, Stata, SPSS, and Minitab into the presented discussion of data analysis; updated references at the end of each chapter.; "Basic Statistics, Fourth Edition" is an ideal book for courses on biostatistics, medicine, and public health at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also appropriate as a reference for researchers and practitioners who would like to refresh their fundamental understanding of statistical techniques.
1 Initial Steps 1.1 Reasons for Studying Biostatistics 1.2 Initial Steps in Designing a Biomedical Study 1.3 Common Types of Biomedical Studies Problems References 2 Populations and Samples 2.1 Basic Concepts 2.2 Definitions of Types of Samples 2.3 Methods of Selecting Simple Random Samples 2.4 Application of Sampling Methods in Biomedical Studies Problems References 3 Collecting and Entering Data 3.1 Initial Steps 3.2 Data Entry 3.3 Screening the Data 3.4 Code Book Problems References 4 Frequency Tables and Their Graphs 4.1 Numerical Methods of Organizing Data 4.2 Graphs Problems References 5 Measures of Location and Variability 5.1 Measures of Location 5.2 Measures of Variability 5.3 Sampling Properties of the Mean and Variance 5.4 Considerations in Selecting Appropriate Statistics 5.5 A Common Graphical Method for Displaying Statistics Problems References 6 The Normal Distribution 6.1 Properties of the Normal Distribution 6.2 Areas Under the Normal Curve 6.3 Importance of the Normal Distribution 6.4 Examining Data for Normality 6.5 Transformations Problems References 7 Estimation of Population Means: Confidence Intervals 7.1 Confidence Intervals 7.2 Needed Sample Size for a Desired Confidence Interval 7.3 The t Distribution 7.4 Confidence Interval for the Mean, Using the t Distribution 7.5 Estimating the Difference Between Two Means: Unpaired Data 7.6 Estimating the Difference Between Two Means: Paired Comparison Problems References 8 Tests of Hypotheses on Population Means 8.1 Tests of Hypotheses for a Single Mean 8.2 Tests for Equality of two Means: Unpaired Data 8.3 Testing for Equality of Means: Paired Data 8.4 Concepts Used in Statistical Testing 8.5 Sample Size 8.6 Confidence Intervals Versus Tests 8.7 Correcting for Multiple Testing 8.8 Reporting the Results Problems References 9 Variances: Estimation and Tests 9.1 Point Estimates for Variances and Standard Deviations 9.2 Testing Whether Two Variances Are Equal: F Test 9.3 Approximate t Test 9.4 Other Tests Problems References 10 Categorical Data: Proportions 10.1 Single Population Proportion 10.2 Samples from Categorical Data 10.3 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial 10.4 Confidence Intervals for a Single Population Proportion 10.5 Confidence Intervals for the Difference in Two Proportions 10.6 Tests of Hypothesis for Population Proportions 10.7 Sample Size for Testing Two Proportions 10.8 Data Entry and Analysis Using Statistical Programs Problems References 11 Categorical Data: Analysis of Two-Way Frequency Tables 11.1 Different Types of Tables 11.2 Relative Risk and Odds Ratio 11.3 Chi-Square Tests for Frequency Tables: two-by-two Tables 11.4 Chi-Square Tests for Larger Tables 11.5 Remarks Problems References 12 Regression and Correlation 12.1 The Scatter Diagram: Single Sample 12.2 Linear Regression: Single Sample 12.3 The Correlation Coefficient for two Variables from a Single Sample 12.4 Linear Regression Assuming the Fixed-X Model 12.5 Other Topics in Linear Regression Problems References 13 Nonparametric Statistics 13.1 The Sign Test 13.2 TheWilcoxon Signed Rank Test 13.3 TheWilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test 13.4 Spearman's Rank Correlation Problems References 14 Introduction to Survival Analysis 14.1 Survival Analysis Data 14.2 Survival Functions 14.3 Computing Estimates of f(t), S(t), and h(t) 14.4 Comparison of Clinical Life Tables and the Kaplan-Meier Method 14.5 Additional Analyses Using Survival Data Problems References Appendix A: Statistical Tables Appendix B: Answers to Selected Problems Appendix C: Computer Statistical Program Resources C.1 Computer Systems for Biomedical Education and Research C.2 A brief indication of statistics computer program advances and some relevant publications since year 2000 C.3 Choices of computer statistical software Bibliography Index